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Rigveda ( ऋग्वेद ) : A Historical Analysis – 1


The AnukramaNIs

The AnukramaNIs or Indices of the Rigveda provide us with the most basic information about each of the 1028 hymns of the Rigveda:

a. The RSi ( Rishi: ऋषि  ) or composer of each hymn or verse.

b. The DevatA (  देवता  ) or deity of each hymn or verse.

c. The Chhanda ( छंद  ) or metre of each hymn or verse.

For the purpose of our historical analysis of the Rigveda, we will be concerned only with the index which deals with the most undeniably historical aspect of the Rigveda: the index of RSis which provides us with details about the living and breathing historical personalities who composed the hymns.

The Rigveda consists of 10 MaNDala ( मंडल ) or Books, which contain 1028 sUktas ( सूक्त ) or hymns, consisting of 10552 mantras ( मंत्र ) or verses as follows:

MaNDala N
II 
III 
IV 

VI 
VII 
VIII 
IX 
Total 
No. of Hymns  191 
 43 
 62 
 58 
 87 
 75 
 104 
 103 
 114 
 191 1028 
No. of verses 2006
 429
 617
 589
 727
 765
 841
 1716
 1108
 1754 10552

The AnukramaNIs give us details, regarding these hymns, which are so basic and indispensable that it is inconceivable that any serious scholar could consider it possible to analyse the hymns without taking the AnukramaNIs as the very basis for his analysis.

But, ironically, not only are the AnukramaNIs generally ignored by the scholars, but this ignorance of, and indifference to, the details contained in the AnukramaNIs is even flaunted by them.

Consider the following statements by eminent scholars who consider themselves qualified to make pronouncements on Rigvedic history:

B.K. Ghosh: “The first MaNDala falls naturally into two parts: the first fifty hymns have the KaNvas as authors like the eighth MaNDala…”.

Actual fact: I.1-11, 24-30 (eighteen hymns) are by ViSvAmitras.

I.31-35 (five hymns) are by ANgirases

I.12-23, 36-50 (twenty-seven hymns) are by KaNvas

DD Kosambi: “The principal Vedic god is Agni, the god of fire; more hymns are dedicated to him than to any other.  Next in importance comes Indra.”

Actual fact: The ratio between the number of hymns and verses to the two gods, by any count, is Indra: Agni = 3:2.

The flippant attitude of these scholars towards factual details, when it comes to Rigvedic studies, is underlined by the nature of Kosambi’s error: he misinterprets the fact that hymns to Agni are generally placed before hymns to Indra, to mean that there are more hymns to Agni than to Indra!

Maurice Bloomfield, in his invaluable work on Rigvedic Repetitions (i.e. verses, verse-sections or phrases, which occur more than once in the Rigveda) claims that these repetitions prove the falsity or dubiousness of the information contained in the AnukramaNIs:

Under the title “Untrustworthiness of AnukramaNI-statements Shown by the Repetitions”, Bloomfield remarks that “the statements of the SarvAnukramaNI …. betray the dubiousness of their authority in no particular more than in relation to the repetitions …. the AnukramaNI finds it in its heart to assign, with unruffled insouciance, one and the same verse to two or more authors, or to ascribe it to two or more divinities, according as it occurs in one book or another, in one connexion or another. The AprI stanzas 3.4.8-11 = 7.2.8-11 are ascribed in the third book to ViSvAmitra GAthina, in the seventh book to VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI.”

 However:

1. The repetitions do not disprove the authenticity of the AnukramaNIs:

a) The repetitions in the Rigveda are representative of a regular phenomenon in Classical and liturgical literature throughout the world.  Consider for example what Gilbert Murray says about similar repetitions in Greek literature: “descriptive phrases…… are caught up ready made from a store of such things: perpetual epithets, front halves of lines, back halves of lines, whole lines, if need be, and long formulae. The stores of the poets were full and brimming.  A bard need only put in his hand and choose out a well-sounding phrase. Even the similes are ready-made.” Quoting this, B.K. Ghosh notes: “All this may be maintained, mutatis mutandis, also of Rigvedic poetry.”

In the case of the Rigveda it is significant that every single repetition pertains to a literary or liturgical phrase.  In fact, the more literary or liturgical the reference, the more the likelihood of repetitions: the longest repetition of three consecutive verses is in the liturgical AprI-sUktas of the ViSvAmitras and VasiSThas: III.4.8-11 = VII.2.8-11.

Not a single repetition pertains to any historical reference: even when the same historical reference is found in four different verses, the phrasing is different: I.53.10; II.14.7; VI.18.13; VIII. 53.2.

Therefore, regardless of the number of verses or verse-sections common to any two hymns ascribed to two different RSis, the hymns in question have to be regarded as compositions of the two RSis to whom they are ascribed: that one RSi has borrowed from the composition of the other is no criterion in judging the correctness of the AnukramaNIs.

b) The AprI-sUktas of the ViSvAmitras and VasiSThas contain the longest repetitions, of three verses, in common: III.4.8-11 = VII. 2.8-11. Bloomfield points to these particular repetitions as evidence in support of his contention that the repetitions disprove the correctness of the AnukramaNIs.  But, ironically, it is these very repetitions which disprove the correctness of his contention.

The composers of the Rigveda were members of ten priestly families, and each family had its own AprI-sUkta composed by a member of the family.  In later times, during the performance of any sacrifice, at the point where an AprI-sUkta was to be recited, the conducting RSi was required to recite the AprI-sUkta of his own family.

The AprI-sUkta of the ViSvAmitras was therefore undoubtedly composed by a ViSvAmitra, and that of the VasiSThas by a VasiSTha. If these two hymns contain repetitions in common, it constitutes the ultimate proof that repetitions in common are no evidence of two hymns not having been composed by two different RSis.

2. There is no logical reason to doubt the authenticity of the authorship ascriptions in the AnukramaNIs, which are corroborated by:

a. The very existence of the AnukramaNIs as a part and parcel of the Rigvedic text from the most ancient times.

b. The very division of the Rigveda into MaNDala, many of which are family MaNDala.

c. The uniformity of style in hymns ascribed to single RSis or families (eg. Parucchepa).

d. The common refrains occuring in the concluding verses of hymns ascribed to certain RSis or families (eg. Kutsa).

e. The common contexts in hymns ascribed to certain RSis or families (eg. the repeated references to SudAs in hymns by VasiSThas).

f. Specific statements within the hymns, where the composers refer to themselves by name.

g. Most important of all, the perfectly logical way in which an analysis of the historical references in the hymns, as we shall demonstrate in this book, produces a pattern of historical correspondences and inter-relationships which fits in perfectly with the ascriptions in the AnukramaNIs.

With this, we may now turn to the actual details given in the AnukramaNIs regarding the names of the composers of the different hymns in the Rigveda:

MaNDala.I  (191 hymns)

1-10
11
12-23
24-30
31-35
36-43
44-50
51-57
58-64
65-73
74-93
94-98
99
100
101-115
116-126
127-139
140-164
165-191
Madhucchandas VaiSvAmitra
JetA MAdhucchandas
MedhAtithi KANva
SunahSepa AjIgarti later DevarAta VaiSvAmitra
HiraNyastUpa ANgiras
KaNva Ghaura
PraskaNva KANva
Savya ANgiras
NodhAs Gautama
ParASara sAktya
Gotama RAhUgaNa
Kutsa ANgiras
KaSyapa MArIca
RjrASva VArSAgira
Kutsa ANgiras
KakSIvAn Dairghatamas
Parucchepa DaivodAsI
DIrghatamas Aucathya
Agastya MaitrAvaruNI

MaNDala II (43 hymns)

1-3
4-7
8-26
27-29
30-43
GRtsamada Saunahotra, later GRtsamada Saunaka
SomAhuti BhArgava
GRtsamada Saunahotra, later GRtsamada Saunaka
KUrma GArtsamada
GRtsamada Saunahotra, later GRtsamada Saunaka

MaNDala III (62 hymns)

1-12
13-14
15-16
17-18
19-22
23-35
36
37
38
39-53
54-56
57-61
62
ViSvAmitra GAthina
RSabha VaiSvAmitra
UtkIla KAtya
Kata VaiSvAmitra
GAthin KauSika.
VaiSvAmitra GAthina
VaiSvAmitra GAthina, Ghora ANgiras
VaiSvAmitra GAthina
VaiSvAmitra GAthina, Prajapati VaiSvAmitra/VAcya
VaiSvAmitra GAthina
PrajApati VaiSvAmitra /VAcya
VaiSvAmitra GAthina
VaiSvAmitra GAthina, Jamadagni BhArgava

MaNDala IV (58 hymns)

1-42
43-44
45-58
VAmadeva Gautama
PurumILha Sauhotra, AjamILha Sauhotra
VAmadeva Gautama

MaNDala V (87 hymns)

1
2
3-6
7-8
9-10
11-14
15
16-17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2425-26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33-34
35-36
37-43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50-51
52-61
62
63-64
65-66
67-68
69-70
71-72
73-74
75
76-77
78
79-80
81-82
83-86
87
Budha/ GaviSThira Atreya
KumAra/VRSa JAna Atreya
VasuSruta Atreya
ISa Atreya
Gaya Atreya
Sutambhara Atreya
DharuNa ANgiras
PUru Atreya
Dvita Atreya
Vavri Atreya
Prayasvanta Atreya
Sasa Atreya
ViSvasAman Atreya
Dyumna ViSvacarSaNI Atreya
Bandhu, Subandhu, Srutabandhu, 
Viprabandhu (GaupAyanas)
VasUyava Atreya
Atri Bhauma
ViSvavArA AtreyI
GaurivIti SAktya
Babhru Atreya
Avasyu Atreya
GAtu Atreya
SamvaraNa PrAjApatya
PrabhUvasu ANgiras
Atri Bhauma
AvatsAra KASyapa, various Atreyas
SadApRNa Atreya
PratikSatra Atreya
Pratiratha Atreya
PratibhAnu Atreya
Pratiprabha Atreya
Svasti Atreya
SyAvASva Atreya
Srutavida Atreya
ArcanAnas Atreya
RAtahavya Atreya
Yajata Atreya
Urucakri Atreya
BAhuvRkta Atreya
Paura Atreya
Avasyu Atreya
Atri Bhauma
Saptavadhri Atreya
SatyaSravas Atreya
SyAvASva Atreya
Atri Bhauma
EvayAmarut Atreya


MaNDala VI (75 hymns)

1-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-43
44-46
47
48
49-52
53-74
75
BharadvAja BArhaspatya
Suhotra BharadvAja
Sunahotra BharadvAja
Nara BharadvAja
BharadvAja BArhaspatya
Samyu BArhaspatya
Garga BharadvAja
Samyu BArhaspatya
RjiSvan BhAradvAja
BharadvAja BArhaspatya
PAyu BharadvAja

MaNDala VII (104 hymns)

1-31
32
33-100
101-102
103-104
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI Sakti VAsiSTha
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI, Kumara Agneya
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI

MaNDala VIII (103 hymns)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14-15
16-18
19-22
23-25
26
27-31
32
33
34
35-38
39-41
42
43-44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57-58
59
60-61
62-65
66
67
68-69
70
71
72
73-74
75
76-78
79
80
81-83 
84
85
86
87

88
89-90
91
92-93
94
95-96
97
98-99
100
101
102
103

PragAtha KANva, MedhAtithi KANva, 
MedhyAtithi KANva
MedhAtithi KANva, Priyamedha ANgiras
MedhyAtithi KANva
DevAtithi KANva
BrahmAtithi KANva
Vatsa KANva
Punarvatsa KANva
Sadhvamsa KANva
SaSakarNa KANva
PragAtha KANva
Vatsa KANva
Parvata KANva
NArada KANva
GoSUktin KANva, ASvasUktin KANva
IrimbiTha KANva
Sobhari KANva
ViSvamanas VaiyaSva
ViSvamanas VaiyaSva, VyaSva ANgiras
Manu Vaivasvata or KaSyapa MArIca
MedhAtithi KANva
MedhyAtithi KANva
NIpAtithi KANva
SyAvASva Atreya
NAbhAka KANva
NAbhAka KANva, ArcanAnas Atreya
VirUpa ANgiras
TriSoka KANva
VaSa ASvya
Trita Aptya
PragAtha KANva
PraskaNva KANva
PuSTigu KANva
SruSTigu KANva
Ayu KANva
Medhya KANva
MAtariSvan KANva
KRSa KANva
PRSadhra KANva
Medhya KANva
SuparNa KANva
Bharga PrAgAtha
PrAgAtha KANva
Kali PrAgAtha
Matsya SAmmada or MAnya MaitrAvaruNI
riyamedha ANgiras
Puruhanman ANgiras
SudIti PurumILha
Haryata PrAgAtha
Gopavana Atreya
VirUpa ANgiras
Kurusuti KANva
KRtnu BhArgava
Ekadyu NaudhAsa
usIdin KANva
USanA KAvya,
KRSna ANgiras
KRSna ANgiras, ViSvaka KArSNI
KRSna ANgiras, DyumnIka VAsiSTha, 
Priyamedha ANgiras
NodhAs Gautama
NRmedha ANgiras, Purumedha ANgiras
ApAlA AtreyI
SukakSa ANgiras
Vindu ANgiras, PUtadakSa ANgiras
TiraScI ANgiras
Rebha KASyapa
NRmedha ANgiras
Nema BhArgava
Jamadagni BhArgava
Prayoga BhArgava, Agni BArhaspatya
Sobhari KANva


MaNDala IX (114 hymns)


5-24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-43
44-46
47-49
50-52
53-60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68 
69
70
71
72
73
74
75-79
80-82
83
84
85
86
87-89
90
91-92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99-100
101
102
103
104-105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113-11
1  .Madhucchandas VaiSvAmitra,  MedhAtithi KANva     
2.    SunahSepa AjIgarti
3.     HiraNyastUpa ANgiras
4.   Asita KASyapa, Devala KASyapa
DRLhacyuta Agastya
IdhmavAha DArLhacyuta
NRmedha ANgiras
Priyamedha ANgiras
NRmedha ANgiras
Bindu ANgiras
Gotama RAhUgaNa
SyAvASva Atreya
Trita Aptya
PrabhUvasu ANgiras
RahUgaNa ANgiras
BRhanmati ANgiras
MedhAtithi KANva
AyAsya ANgiras
Kavi BhArgava
Ucathya ANgiras
AvatsAra KASyapa
AmahIyu ANgiras
Jamadagni BhArgava
Nidhruvi KASyapa
KaSyapa MArIca
Jamadagni BhArgava
Sata VaikhAnasa
SaptaRSis, Pavitra ANgiras
VatsaprI BhAlandana
HiraNyastUpa ANgiras
ReNu VaiSvAmitra
RSabha VaiSvAmitra
Harimanta ANgiras
Pavitra ANgiras
KakSIvAn Dairghatamas
avi BhArgava
asu BhAradvAja
Pavitra ANgiras
PrajApati VAcya
Vena BhArgava
Atri Bhauma, GRtsamada Saunaka, 
AkRSTa MASA, Sikata NivAvarI, PRSni AjaUSanA KAvya
VasiSTha MaitrAvaruNI
KaSyapa MArIca
NodhAs Gautama
KaNva Ghaura
PraskaNva KANva
Pratardana DaivodAsI
VasiSTha MaitrAvarunI, Indrapramati 
VAsiSTha, VRSagaNa VAsiSTha, Manyu 
VAsiSTha, Upamanyu VAsiSTha, 
VyAghrapAda VAsiSTha, Sakti VAsiSTha, 
KarNaSrut VAsiSTha, MRLIka VAsiSTha, 
Vsukra VAsiSTha, ParASara SAktya, 
Kutsa ANgiras.AmbarISa VArSAgira, RjiSvan ANgiras
RebhAsUnu KASyapas
AndhIgu SyAvASvI, YayAtI NAhuSa, NahuSa 
MAnava, Manu SamvaraNa, PrajApati 
VaiSvAmitra.
Trita Aptya
Dvita Aptya
 Parvata KANva, NArada KANva
Agni CakSuSa, CakSu MAnava, Manu Apsava
SaptaRSis
GaurIvIti SAktya, Sakti VAsiSTha, Uru ANgiras, 
RjiSvan BhAradvAja
Agni DhISNya AiSvaraya
TryaruNa TraivRSNa, Trasadasyu Paurukutsa
AnAnata PArucchepi 
SiSu ANgiras 
KaSyapa MArIca

MaNDala X (191 hymns)

1-7
8
9
10
11-12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20-26
27-29
30-34
35-36
37
38
39-40
41
42-44
45-46
47
48-50
51-53
54-56
57-60
61-62
63-64
65-66
67-68
69-70
71-72
73-74
75
76
77-78
79-80
81-82
83-84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142

143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177 
178
179

180
181

182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191

Trita Aptya
TriSirAs TvASTra
TriSirAs TvASTra, SindhudvIpa AmbarISa
Yama Vaivasvata, YamI VaivasvatI
HavirdhAna ANgi
VivasvAn Aditya
Yama Vaivasvata
Sankha YAmAyana
Damana YAmAyana
DevaSravas YAmAyana
Sankusuka YAmAyana
Matitha YAmAyana, or BhRgu, or Cyavana 
BhArgava
Vimada Aindra, VasukRt VAsukra
Vasukra Aindra
KavaSa AilUSa
LuSa DhAnaka
AbhitApa Saurya
Indra MuSkavAn
GhoSA KAkSIvatI
Suhastya GhauSeya
KRSNa Angiras
VatsaprI BhAlandana
Saptagu ANgiras
Indra VaikuNTha
Agni Saucika
BRhaduktha VAmadevya
Bandhu, Subandhu, Srutabandhu, 
Viprabandhu (GaupAyanas)
NAbhAnediSTha MAnava
Gaya PlAta
VasukarNa VAsukra 
AyAsya ANgiras
Sumitra VAdhryaSva 
BRhaspati ANgiras
GaurivIti SAktya
SindhukSit Praiyamedha
JaratkarNa Sarpa AirAvata
SyUmaraSmi BhArgava
Agni SaucIka or Sapti VAjambhara
ViSvakarmA Bhauvana
Manyu TApasa
SUryA SAvitrI
VRSAkapi Aindra, Indra, IndrANI
PAyu BhAradvAja
MUrdhanvAn VAmadevya
ReNu VaiSvAmitra
NArAyaNa
AruNa Vaitahavya
SAryAta MAnava
TAnva PArthya
Arbuda KAdraveya Sarpa
PurUravas AiLa, UrvaSI
Baru ANgiras, Sarvahari Aindra
BhiSag AtharvaNa
DevApi ArSTiSeNa
Vamra VaikhAnasa
Duvasyu VAndana
Budha Saumya
Mudgala BhArmyaSva
Apratiratha Aindra
ASTaka VaiSvAmitra
Sumitra Kautsa, Durmitra Kautsa
BhUtAMSa KASyapa
Divya ANgiras, DakSiNA PrAjApatya
SaramA, PaNis
JuhU BrahmajAyA
RAma JAmadagnya, Jamadagni BhArgava
ASTAdaMSTra VairUpa
Nabhahprabhedana VairUpa
Sataprabhedana VairUpa
Sadhri VairUpa
Upastuta VArSTihavya
Agniyuta Sthaura
BhikSu ANgiras
UrukSaya ANgiras
Laba Aindra
BRhaddiva AtharvaNa
HiraNyagarbha PrAjApatya
CitramahA VAsiSTha
Vena BhArgava
Agni, VaruNa, Soma
VAk AmbhRNI
AMhomuk VAmadevya
KuSika Saubhara, RAtrI BhAradvAjI
Vihavya ANgiras
PrajApati ParameSThin
Yajña PrAjApatya
SukIrti KAkSIvata
SakapUta NArmedha
SudAs Paijavana
MAndhAtA YauvanASva
KumAra YAmAyana
JUti, VAtajUti, ViprajUti, VRSAnaka, 
Karikrata, EtaSa, RSyaSRnga (VAtaraSanas)
SaptaRSis
ANga Aurava
ViSvavAsu Devagandharva
Agni, PAvaka
Agni TRpasa
SArNga, JaritR, DroNa, SArisRkva, 
Stambhamitra
Atri SAnkhya
Urdhvasadman YAmAyana
IndrANI
DevamunI Airammada
Suvedas SairISI
PRthu Vainya
Arcan HairaNyastUpa
MRLIka VAsiSTha
SraddhA KAmAyanI
SAsa BhAradvAja
IndramAtara DevajAmaya
YamI VaivasvatI
SirimbiTha BhAradvAja
Ketu Agneya
Bhuvana Aptya, SAdhana Aptya
CakSu Saurya
SacI PaulomI
PUraNa VaiSvAmitra
YakSmanASana PrAjApatya
RakSohA BrAhma
VivRhA KASyapa
Pracetas ANgiras
Kapota NairRta
RSabha VairAja SAkvara
ViSvAmitra, Jamadagni
Anila VAtAyana
Sabara KAkSIvata
VibhrAt Saurya
ITa BhArgava
SaMvarta ANgiras
Dhruva ANgiras
AbhIvarta ANgiras
UrdhvagrAvA Arbuda
SUnu Arbhava
PataNga PrAjApatya
AriSTanemi TArkSya
Sibi AuSInara, Pratardana KASirAja, Vasumanas RauhidaSva
Jaya Aindra
Pratha VAsiSTha, Sapratha BhAradvAja, 
Gharma Saurya
TapurmUrdhan BArhaspatya
PrajAvAn PrAjApatya
ViSNu PrAjApatya
SatyadhRti VAruNi
Ula VAtAyana
Vatsa Agneya
Syena Agneya
SArparAjñI
AghamarSaNa MAdhucchandas
SaMvanana ANgiras

There are obviously corruptions in the AnukramaNIs in the form of ascriptions to fictitious composers.  This is particularly the case in MaNDala X, where a large number of hymns are ascribed to composers whose names, or patronyms/epithets, or both, are fictitious.

However, in the first eight MaNDala, except in the case of one single hymn (VIII.47), it is very easy to identify the actual composer (by which we mean the RSi who actually composed the hymn, or his eponymous ancestor to whose name the hymn is to be credited as per the system followed in the particular MaNDala) of a hymn ascribed to a fictitious composer.

Hence, in our listing of the composers of the first eight MaNDalas, we have replaced the fictitious names in the AnukramaNIs with the names of the actual composers, whose identity is clear from those same AnukramaNIs.

In all these cases, the actual composer is the RSi of the hymn or the RSi of the MaNDala.  The hymns in question are:

(1) Hymns where the entire hymn, or verses therein, are ascribed solely (in III.23 and IV.42) or alternatively (in the others) to RSis or kings who are referred to within the hymns by the actual composer:

Hymn

Fictitious Composers

Actual Composer

I.100

AmbarISa, Sahadeva, BhayamAna, SurAdhas

RjrASva

I.105

Trita Aptya

Kutsa

I.126

BhAvayavya, RomaSA

KakSIvAn

III.23

DevaSravas, DevavAta

ViSvAmitra

IV.42

Trasadasyu Paurukutsa

VAmadeva

V.27

Trasadasyu, TryaruNa, ASvamedha

Atri

VI.15

VItahavya

BharadvAja

VIII.1

AsaNga, SaSvatI

MedhAtithi

VIII.34

Vasurocis

NIpAtithi

(2) Dialogue hymns, in some of which verses are ascribed to Gods and even rivers:

Hymn

Fictitious Composers

Actual Composer

I.165

Indra, Maruts, (epon.) Agastya

Agastya

I.170

Indra, (epon.) Agastya

Agastya

I.179

(epon.) Agastya, LopAmudrA, a pupil

Agastya

III.33

(epon.) ViSvAmitra, Rivers

ViSvAmitra

IV.18

(epon.) VAmadeva, Indra, Aditi

ViSvAmitra

(3) Hymns which are ascribed alternatively to the actual composers and to their remote ancestors:

Hymn

Fictitious ComposersActual Composer

III.31KuSika AiSIrathIViSvAmitra GAthinaVIII.27-31Manu VaivasvataKaSyapa MArIcaVIII.71PurumILha ANgirasSudIti PurumILha

References:-

1.The History and Culture of the Indian People

2. The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India in Historical Outline by D.D. Kosambi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.  Ltd, Delhi-Bombay-Bangalore-Kanpur, 1975 (first printed 1970).

3. Rgveda Repetitions Vol.2 by Maurice Bloomfield, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts,  1916.  p. 634

4. The Rise of the Greek Epic by Gilbert Murray

Courtesy: – Rigveda: A historical Analysis by  Shrikant G. Talageri 

 


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